Sveti Oton, bamberški biskup (1063. – 1139.)

2. srpnja


Njemački grad Bamberg sačuvao je nešto od one srednjovjekovne ljepote, kad je bilo više smisla za duhovne vrednote. U njemu, uz divnu romansku katedralu s četiri tornja, s grobovima sv. Henrika i sv. Kunigunde, ima i drugih crkava i samostana. Možda je po popularnosti najpoznatija crkva Sv. Mihovila, što se ponosno diže povrh grada kraj nekadašnjeg benediktinskog samostana. U njoj se nalazi grob osmog po redu bamberškog biskupa koji je, uz sveti carski par što počiva u bamberškoj katedrali, zaštitnik toga lijepoga grada. Grobovi su bamberških pokrovitelja već stoljećima hodočasnička mjesta kamo hodočasti pobožni puk iz njemačke pokrajine Oberfrankena.

Kad se sredinom srpnja 1966. u Bambergu održavao 81. njemački katolički dan, održana je veličanstvena procesija sa svijećama u kojoj je sudjelovao gotovo cijeli njemački episkopat i 30.000 vjernika. Povorka je išla iz katedrale prema Michaelsbergu i grobu svetog Otona. Svečanost je trajala puna tri sata. Bila je organizirana poznatom njemačkom organizacijskom sposobnošću. U njoj se molilo, pjevalo, zazivalo sv. Henrika, moleći za državnike, sv. Kunigundu moleći za žene i majke, sv. Otona moleći za duhovne pastire. Svaki je sudionik te procesije – sretnik sam bio i ja – mogao doživjeti dušu njemačkih katolika. Nju su oblikovali njemački sveci, među kojima na posljednjem mjestu nije ni sveti Oton, bamberški biskup.

Oton se rodio kao sin jedne plemićke obitelji u pokrajini Švapskoj oko g. 1063. »Svoj visoki ugled ne zahvaljuje svom rođenju i roditeljskoj kući nego jedino svojoj ličnosti i kreposti«, piše o njemu B. Neundorfer. Ostavši siroče, pošao je s bratom Fridrihom u Poljsku. Kao svećenik bio je dvorski kapelan Judite, sestre cara Henrika IV., koja je stupila u drugi brak s poljskim knezom Vratislavom.

Oton je postao biskup u Bambergu god. 1102. Biskupsko posvećenje primio je tek na Duhove 1106. u Anagniju, i to od samoga Pape. U borbama za investituru između cara Henrika V. i Pape Oton je sačuvao vezu i jedinstvo s Rimom. U svojoj je biskupiji bdio nad crkvenom slobodom boreći se da Crkva može nesmetana od svjetovnih knezova obavljati svoje poslanje. Nastojao je oko crkvene stege te duhovne obnove svećenika i redovnika. Znao je da je zanemarena klerička stega najgore zlo za Crkvu. Svećenik i redovnik bez zdrave stege, duha i poslušnosti pravo je strašilo.

Oton je znao cijeniti vrijednost dobrih redovničkih zajednica i zato je podizao nove samostane. Osnovao ih je 15 velikih i 6 malih. Njegovo se djelovanje širilo izvan granica njegove biskupije čak do Akvileje. Održao je i razne sinode te poradio na obnovi cistercitskoga i premonstratenskoga reda. Nazvan je »ocem redovnikâ«. Sudjelovao je i u naviještanju Evanđelja u Pomeraniji, kamo ga je s dvadesetak svećenika i drugih pomoćnika poslao poljski knez Boleslav. Na njegov rad pogani su reagirali, no on je odvratio u duhu vjere smirivši situaciju. Riječju i spisima duhovno je izgrađivao tu mladu Crkvu.

O karitativnom radu revnoga biskupa svjedoče dvije bolnice: Svetog Egidija i Svete Gertrude, podignute od njega u Bambergu. Promicatelj znanosti i kulture bio je po glasovitoj bamberškoj katedralnoj školi i školi pisaca opatije Michaelsberg. Članovi te škole bili su i njegovi kasniji životopisci Ebo i Herbord.

Sveti je biskup umro u Bambergu 30. lipnja 1139., a na vlastitu je želju pokopan u crkvi na Michaelsbergu. Klement III. proglasio ga je godine 1189. svetim. Prikazuju ga u biskupskom ornatu s knjigom u ruci. Na nekim ga slikama prikazuju i s psom jer ga po Njemačkoj zazivaju u pomoć protiv bjesnoće.
 

Oton Oton je muško ime, koje u Hrvatskoj većinom nalazimo među Hrvatima te manje među Česima. Značenje imena dolazi od francuskog Othon od njem. Otto. Oto. Oton je nešto rjeđe ime. Danas u Hrvatskoj živi šesdesetak ovakih imenjaka Najviše osoba nazvanih Oton rođeno je u novom tisućljeću, a najmanje sedamdesetih godina prošlog stoljeća. Relativno najveći broj osoba s imenom Oton slavi rođendan 29. prosinca. Većina osoba koje se zovu Oton žitelji su Zagreba (ukupno manje od dvadeset), Osijeka (manje od deset) te Rijeke (manje od deset). S obzirom na broj stanovnika, Oton najčešće je ime među stanovnicima Tkona gdje se svaki sedamstoti stanovnik tako zove. Nadimci: Ota, Ote, Oto; Vidi: Ottone, Othon

Bishop and Apostle of Pomerania. Born in Swabia, to a noble family, he served Emperor Henry IV in various posts, including that of chancellor. However, Otto was not in favor of Henry’s policies toward the Holy See, in particular his insistence of rights of investiture. Thus, when Otto was appointed bishop of Bamberg in 1103, he refused to be consecrated until receiving approval from Pope Paschal II who consecrated him in 1106. Otto was a figure in the reconciliation of the pope and Emperor Henry V. At the behest of King Boleslav III of Poland, Otto headed a missionary effort to Pomerania where he found considerable success in making converts among the local inhabitants. In honor of his work, he is known as the Apostle of Pomerania. He died in Bamberg on June 30. He was canonized in 1189.

Otto of Bamberg, in Michaelsberg Abbey, Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany
Bishop and Confessor; Apostle of Pomerania
Born 1060
Mistelbach, Franconia
Died 30 June 1139
Pomerania (now in modern-day Poland)
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Canonized 1189, Rome by Pope Clement III
Major shrine St. Michael's Church, Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany
Feast 2 July

Otto von Bamberg, Pomeranian Dukes' Castle, Szczecin (Stettin)Saint Otto of Bamberg (German: Otto von Bamberg) (1060 or 1061 – 30 June 1139) was a medieval German bishop and missionary who, as papal legate, converted much of Pomerania to Christianity.
Bishop and Apostle of Pomerania. Born in Swabia, to a noble family, he served Emperor Henry IV in various posts, including that of chancellor. However, Otto was not in favor of Henry’s policies toward the Holy See, in particular his insistence of rights of investiture. Thus, when Otto was appointed bishop of Bamberg in 1103, he refused to be consecrated until receiving approval from Pope Paschal II who consecrated him in 1106. Otto was a figure in the reconciliation of the pope and Emperor Henry V. At the behest of King Boleslav III of Poland, Otto headed a missionary effort to Pomerania where he found considerable success in making converts among the local inhabitants. In honor of his work, he is known as the Apostle of Pomerania. He died in Bamberg on June 30. He was canonized in 1189.

Otto of Bamberg, in Michaelsberg Abbey, Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany
Bishop and Confessor; Apostle of Pomerania
Born 1060
Mistelbach, Franconia
Died 30 June 1139
Pomerania (now in modern-day Poland)
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Canonized 1189, Rome by Pope Clement III
Major shrine St. Michael's Church, Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany
Feast 2 July

Otto von Bamberg, Pomeranian Dukes' Castle, Szczecin (Stettin)Saint Otto of Bamberg (German: Otto von Bamberg) (1060 or 1061 – 30 June 1139) was a medieval German bishop and missionary who, as papal legate, converted much of Pomerania to Christianity.

LifeOtto was born into a noble family in Mistelbach, Franconia. Serving initially in the household of Duke Władysław I Herman of Poland, he entered the service of the Emperor Henry IV in 1090 and was appointed Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1101.

In 1102, the Emperor appointed and invested him as Bishop of Bamberg in Franconia (now in the state of Bavaria), and Otto became one of the leading princes of medieval Germany. During his tenure as bishop, Bamberg rose to great prominence, while Otto achieved fame as a missionary and as a diplomat and politician, notably during the Investiture Controversy between Emperor Henry IV and the papacy during which he remained loyal to the emperor. As a consequence, he was suspended by a papal party at the Synod of Fritzlar in 1118. At the Congress of Würzburg in 1121 Otto successfully negotiated the peace treaty, the Concordat of Worms, which was signed in 1122 at Worms.

As bishop, Otto led a model, simple and frugal life, but did much to improve his ecclesiastical and temporal realms. He rebuilt and completed Bamberg Cathedral after it had been destroyed by fire in 1081, improved the cathedral school, established numerous monasteries and built a number of churches throughout his territory and in Pomerania, and greatly expanded the town of Bamberg.

Among his great accomplishments was his peaceful and successful missionary work among the Pomeranians, after several previous forcible attempts by Poles and Italians to convert Pomerania to Christianity had failed. Otto became the papal legate, converted a large number of Pomeranians, notably in the towns of Pyritz, Kammin, Stettin (Szczecin), and Julin, and established eleven churches, and became known as the "Apostle of Pomerania."

After he returned to Bamberg in 1125, some pagan customs began to reassert themselves, and Otto journeyed once more to Pomerania in 1128. In the Diet of Usedom, he succeeded in converting all the nobles, converted further communities, and sent priests from Bamberg to serve in Pomerania. His intent to consecrate a bishop for Pomerania was thwarted by the bishops of Magdeburg and Gnesen (Gniezno) who claimed metropolitan rights over Pomerania. Only after his death in 1139 was his former companion, Adalbert of Pomerania, consecrated as Bishop of Julin, in 1140. In 1188 the Diocese of Wolin had its seat moved to Kammin, and was made directly subject to the Holy See.

Otto died on 30 June 1139, and was buried in Michaelsberg Abbey, Bamberg. He was canonised in 1189 by Pope Clement III. Although he died on 30 June, his name is recorded in the Roman martyrology on 2 July.

The area of western Prussia around Gdańsk was Christianized via Pomerania as well, and the monastery of Oliwa at Gdańsk was established at that time, while eastern Prussia was Christianized later via Riga by the Teutonic Knights.